FSD2291 Homosexuality in Finland in the 1940s and the 1960s, Data Gathered 1994-1998

The dataset is (C) available for research only (including Master's, doctoral and Polytechnic/University of Applied Sciences Master's theses). The dataset may not be used for teaching, study (e.g. seminar papers, essays) or other theses (Bachelor's theses or equivalent).

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Study description in other languages

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Study title

Homosexuality in Finland in the 1940s and the 1960s, Data Gathered 1994-1998

Dataset ID Number


Persistent identifier


Data Type



  • Juvonen, Tuula (University of Tampere. Department of Social Policy and Social Work)

Other Identification/Acknowledgements

  • Jaakola, Tarja


The study charted the perceptions and beliefs about same-sex relationships in Finland after the wars. The data were collected between 1994 and 1998, and the full data contain 26 interviews, conducted mainly in Tampere. The total length of the dataset is 660 pages. Some of the respondents had been in a same-sex relationship, while some were outside observers. The respondents were born in the 1910-1950s. The interviews explore the status and living conditions of sexual minorities in Finland in the 1940-1960s. The questions charted topics such as meeting places of gays and lesbians, general attitudes towards sexuality, attitudes towards famous gays and lesbians, and whether there were any chances for members of sexual minorities to build a relationship. Further questions probed the respondents' views on living in Tampere, homosexuality in the media, and criminalised homosexuality. The data are also available for teaching purposes (FSD2308).

The dataset is only available in Finnish.


homosexuality; minority groups; partnerships (personal); same-sex relationships; sexual identity; sexual orientation; social history; tolerance

Topic Classification


Individual datasets


Finnish Social Science Data Archive


The dataset is (C) available for research only (including e.g. Master's, licentiate and doctoral theses).

Data Collector

  • Juvonen, Tuula (University of Tampere. Department of Social Policy and Social Work)

Time Period Covered

1940 – 1960

Collection Dates

1994-01-30 – 1998-06-08



Geographical Coverage

Finland, Tampere

Analysis/Observation Unit Type



Former or current citizens of Tampere born in the 1910-1950s who had some connection to same-sex relationships or members of sexual minorities

Time Method


Sampling Procedure

Non-probability: Availability

Non-probability: Respondent-assisted

Respondents were recruited using snowball sampling. In addition, invitations to participate in the study were published in different newspapers, on the Internet and in public lectures. Invitations were also given in various events targeted at lesbians and gays as well as left in places favoured by members of sexual minorities. Contact details of police officers participating in the interviews were received from Tampere police station. The interviews were mainly conducted in Tampere.

Collection Mode

Face-to-face interview

Research Instrument

Interview scheme and/or themes

Data Processing

The interviews were transcribed into digital format during the research project and they were anonymised during archiving. All names of private persons were replaced by pseudonyms and other direct and indirect identifiers were replaced or removed.

Data Files

The data consist of 26 interviews, approximately 660 pages in total. Transcripts are available in RTF and HTML files.

Data File Language

The data files of this dataset are available in the following languages: Finnish.

Qualitative data are available in their original language only and are not translated.

Data Version


Completeness of Data and Restrictions

The doctoral dissertation of Tuula Juvonen included a total of 41 interviews. The interviews of participants who gave their permission for archiving were deposited with the FSD.

Citation Requirement

The data and its creators shall be cited in all publications and presentations for which the data have been used. The bibliographic citation may be in the form suggested by the archive or in the form required by the publication.

Bibliographical Citation

Juvonen, Tuula (University of Tampere): Homosexuality in Finland in the 1940s and the 1960s, Data Gathered 1994-1998 [dataset]. Version 1.0 (2008-01-25). Finnish Social Science Data Archive [distributor]. http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi:fsd:T-FSD2291

Deposit Requirement

The user shall notify the archive of all publications where she or he has used the data.


The original data creators and the archive bear no responsibility for any results or interpretations arising from the reuse of the data.

Other Material

See downloadable files at the top of the page.

Related Publications Tooltip

Juvonen, Tuula (2002). Varjoelämää ja julkisia salaisuuksia. Tampere: Osuuskunta Vastapaino.

Larsson, Christer (2009). Homosexualitetsdiskurser i Pentti Holappas 1950-tals produktion. I: Uppsatser om kön, historiebruk och krigets efterspel (red. Lindberg, Hanna & Östman, Ann-Catrin), 115-134. Arken. Studier i historia vid Åbo Akademi; 1. Åbo: Åbo Akademi.

Study description in machine readable DDI 2.0 format

Creative Commons License
Metadata record is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.