FSD2418 Reproductive Health in St. Petersburg: Women 2004

The dataset is (C) available for research only (including Master's, doctoral and Polytechnic/University of Applied Sciences Master's theses). The dataset may not be used for teaching, study (e.g. seminar papers, essays) or other theses (Bachelor's theses or equivalent).

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  • Dubikaytis, Tatyana (St. Petersburg Medical Academy for Post-Graduate Studies)
  • Haavio-Mannila, Elina (University of Helsinki. Department of Sociology)
  • Hemminki, Elina (National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health (STAKES))
  • Kesseli, Katja (University of Helsinki. Department of Sociology)
  • Kirichenko, Svetlana (University of Helsinki. Department of Sociology)
  • Kuznetsova, Olga (St. Petersburg Medical Academy for Post-Graduate Studies)
  • Regushevskaya, Elena (St. Petersburg Medical Academy for Post-Graduate Studies)
  • Rotkirch, Anna (University of Helsinki. Department of Sociology)
  • Väänänen, Tuula (National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health (STAKES))


birth control, domestic violence, family planning, fertility, health status, interpersonal relations, maternity care, pregnancy, reproduction (biological), reproductive health, sex education, sexual abuse, sexual behaviour, sexual health, sexual intimacy, sexually transmitted diseases, women's health


The survey charted the reproductive health and family formation of women aged 18-44 living in St. Petersburg, Russia. Topics included dating and sexual behaviour, pregnancy and children, health care relating to pregnancies and giving birth, contraception, attitudes towards having children, and health and use of health services.

Sexual relationships and sexuality were investigated. The respondents were asked how old they had been when they had started dating for the first time and when they had first had sexual intercourse, how old their partner had been, which contraceptive method they had used when they first had intercourse, how many sexual partners they had had within the previous year and in their life, and how long they had been in their current relationship. In addition, opinions were charted on how satisfied they were with their relationship, whether they had had extramarital sexual activity, when they had last had intercourse, whether they were sexually interested in the same sex, whether they had received money or paid for sex, and whether they had received sexual education.

Relating to pregnancies and children, questions were asked about breast-feeding, ages of children, previous pregnancies, who took care of the child while R was at work, and who had taken care of R when they had been under school age. Pregnancy and delivery care was surveyed by asking the respondents what kind of health care institutions they had visited during their latest pregnancy, how many times a midwife had visited them after their last delivery, and whether they had had medical conditions or problems relating to pregnancy. The number of abortions, the reasons for having one, the place where the abortion was induced, and satisfaction with treatment received were queried. Childlessness and infertility experienced by the respondents was studied as well as medical examinations or treatment sought for it. One set of questions probed whether the respondents had had any sexually transmitted diseases and what they would have done if they had found out they had contracted one.

Use of contraception was surveyed. The respondents were asked which contraceptive method they had used in their latest intercourse, who had decided on the use of contraception, whether they had used contraceptive pills, and whether they were satisfied with the contraceptive method they were using. Additionally, views were charted on whether the cost had affected the decisions to use contraception, satisfaction with health services related to contraception, reasons for which a woman could refuse sexual intercourse, and the role of men in contraception, childbirth, and abortion.

Opinions were investigated on the ideal number of children, ideal age for having children, plans to have children in the future, and reasons for having or not having children. The respondents' chronic illnesses and conditions as well as their quality of life and satisfaction with health was charted. Height and weight were queried. The number of visits to a physician in the previous year and health examinations were surveyed as well as how often the respondents smoked and used alcohol. Finally, the respondents were asked whether they had been victims of threatening behaviour, violence, or sexual violence.

The survey is part of the research project "Reproductive Health and Fertility Patterns in Russia - A Comparative Approach (REFER)". The researchers have translated the original Russian data into English.

Background variables included the respondent's year of birth, marital status, education, income, nationality and economic activity.

Study description in machine readable DDI-C 2.5 format

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