FSD1289 Measures of Democracy 1810-2018

Study title

Measures of Democracy 1810-2018

Dataset ID Number


Persistent identifier


Data Type



  • Vanhanen, Tatu (University of Tampere. Department of Political Science and International Relations)


The data contain three different variables, created by Tatu Vanhanen in his long-term research, for each year from 1810 to 2018. The variables in question are political competition, political participation and the index of democratization.

The competition variable portrays the electoral success of smaller parties, that is, the percentage of votes gained by the smaller parties in parliamentary and/or presidential elections. The variable is calculated by subtracting from 100 the percentage of votes won by the largest party (the party which wins most votes) in parliamentary elections or by the party of the successful candidate in presidential elections. Depending on their importance, either parliamentary or presidential elections are used in the calculation of the variable, or both elections are used, with weights. If information on the distribution of votes is not available, or if the distribution does not portray the reality accurately, the distribution of parliamentary seats is used instead. If parliament members are elected but political parties are not allowed to take part in elections, it is assumed that one party has taken all votes or seats. In countries where parties are not banned but yet only independent candidates participate in elections, it is assumed that the share of the largest party is not over 30 percent.

The political participation variable portrays the voting turnout in each election, and is calculated as the percentage of the total population who actually voted in the election. In the case of indirect elections, only votes cast in the final election are taken into account. If electors have not been elected by citizens, only the number of actual electors is taken into account, which means that the degree of participation drops to the value 0. If an election to choose electors has been held, the participation variable is calculated from the number and distribution of votes in that election. National referendums raise the variable value by five percent and state (regional) referendums by one percent for the year they are held. Referendums can add the degree of participation at maximum by 30 percent a year. The value of the combined degree of participation cannot be higher than 70 percent, even in cases where the sum of participation and referendums would be higher than 70.

The index of democratization is formed by multiplying the competition and the participation variables and then dividing the outcome by 100.


democracy; democratization; political participation; political parties; politics; voting

Topic Classification


Individual datasets


Finnish Social Science Data Archive


The dataset is (A) openly available for all users without registration (CC BY 4.0).

Data Collector

  • Vanhanen, Tatu (University of Tampere. Department of Political Science and International Relations)
  • Lundell, Krister (Åbo Akademi University. Department of Political Science)

Time Period Covered

1810 – 2018

Collection Dates

1970 – 2019


United Arab Emirates, Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Albania, Armenia, Angola, Argentina, Austria, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Barbados, Bangladesh, Belgium, Burkina Faso, Bulgaria, Bahrain, Burundi, Benin, Brunei, Bolivia, Brazil, Bahamas, Bhutan, Botswana, Belarus, Belize, Canada, Congo (Zaire), Central African Republic, Congo (Brazzaville), Switzerland, Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire), Chile, Cameroon, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Cuba, Cape Verde, Cyprus, Czech Republic, German Democratic Republic GDR, Germany, West-Germany, Djibouti, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Algeria, Ecuador, Estonia, Egypt, Eritrea, Spain, Ethiopia, Finland, Fiji, Micronesia, France, Gabon, United Kingdom, Grenada, Georgia, Ghana, Gambia, Guinea, Equatorial Guinea, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Croatia, Haiti, Hungary, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, India, Iraq, Iran, Iceland, Italy, Jamaica, Jordan, Japan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Cambodia, Kiribati, Comoros, Saint Kitts and Nevis, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kazakhstan, Laos, Lebanon, Saint Lucia, Sri Lanka, Liberia, Lesotho, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Libya, Morocco, Moldova, Madagascar, Marshall Islands, Macedonia, Mali, Myanmar (Burma), Mongolia, Mauritania, Malta, Mauritius, Maldives, Malawi, Mexico, Malaysia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Nicaragua, The Netherlands, Norway, Nepal, New Zealand, Oman, Panama, Peru, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Paraguay, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Solomon Islands, Seychelles, Sudan, Sweden, Singapore, Slovenia, Slovakia, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Somalia, Serbia, Suriname, Sao Tome and Principe, Russia (USSR, Soviet Union), El Salvador, Syria, Swaziland, Chad, Togo, Thailand, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, Turkmenistan, Tunisia, Tonga, Turkey, Trinidad and Tobago, Taiwan, Tanzania, Ukraine, Uganda, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Vanuatu, Yemen, Yugoslavia, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, North Vietnam, North Yemen, South Vietnam, South Yemen

Geographical Coverage

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Myanmar (Burma), Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Zaire), Costa Rica, Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire), Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Gambia, German Democratic Republic GDR, Germany, West-Germany, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Macedonia, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Russia (USSR, Soviet Union), Rwanda, Western Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, North Vietnam, South Vietnam, Yemen, North Yemen, South Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Analysis/Observation Unit Type

Political-administrative area (Country)


All independent states, their predecessors and Taiwan (excluding "the states with less than 40000 inhabitants; former states and principalities that no longer exist; former colonies; precolonial states and political communities of Asia and Africa")

Time Method

Time series

Data Sources

See related material

Sampling Procedure

Total universe/Complete enumeration

The data contains information on all states found in openly available public documents.

Collection Mode


Research Instrument

Data collection guidelines: Secondary data collection guide

Data File Language

Downloaded data package may contain different language versions of the same files.

The data files of this dataset are available in the following languages: Finnish and English.

FSD translates quantitative data into English on request, free of charge. More information on ordering data translation.

Number of Cases and Variables

632 variables and 191 cases.

Data Version


Related Datasets

FSD1216 Democratization and Power Resources 1850-2000

FSD2140 Gender-Weighted Index of Democratization 1995-2010

FSD2420 Index of Power Resources (IPR) 2007


There are no weight variables in the data.

Citation Requirement

The data and its creators shall be cited in all publications and presentations for which the data have been used. The bibliographic citation may be in the form suggested by the archive or in the form required by the publication.

Bibliographical Citation

Vanhanen, Tatu (University of Tampere): Measures of Democracy 1810-2018 [dataset]. Version 8.0 (2019-06-17). Finnish Social Science Data Archive [distributor]. http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi:fsd:T-FSD1289

Deposit Requirement

The user shall notify the archive of all publications where she or he has used the data.


The original data creators and the archive bear no responsibility for any results or interpretations arising from the reuse of the data.

Related Materials

See more information in the attachments of the codebook (cbF1289e.pdf)

Related Publications Tooltip

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