FSD2943 Child Victim Survey 2013

The dataset is (B) available for research, teaching and study.

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Study description in other languages

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Study title

Child Victim Survey 2013

Dataset ID Number


Persistent identifier


Data Type



  • Ellonen, Noora (Police University College)
  • Fagerlund, Monica (Police University College)
  • Kääriäinen, Juha (Police University College)
  • Peltola, Marja (Finnish Youth Research Society. Finnish Youth Research Network)
  • Sariola, Heikki (Central Union for Child Welfare)


The survey focused on violence against children and adolescents in Finland, surveying different forms and manifestations of violence. The main themes in the survey were experiences of crime (such as robberies, thefts, threats, assaults and domestic violence), sibling and peer victimisation, sexual violence, harassment and threats via the internet and mobile phone (cyber-bullying). New themes in the 2013 survey included violence occurring during instructed activities and violence against family members witnessed in public. Many of the questions charting these experiences and incidents are based on the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ, Finkelhor et al.). More than 11,000 children across Finland participated in the survey. The 2013 survey was conducted in collaboration with the Finnish Youth Research Society.

The respondents were asked to whom they were able to talk about their personal matters and with whom they spent their free time. Smoking, alcohol and drug use as well as alcohol use in the family were charted. One set of questions studied the respondents' health status, opinions on own appearance, and emotional and behavioural problems (with questions based on Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ, SDQ-Fin]).

The respondents who participated in instructed activity (e.g. sports, music) in their leisure time were asked whether their instructor had threatened them or abused them verbally, physically or sexually. The respondents' experiences of violence and other illegal activities were studied; the questions presented examined whether they had been a victim of a crime (violent robbery, theft/robbery, assault, threat of assault), and relating to each crime, they were asked how many such incidents had occurred in the previous 12 months, whether the incident had happened before, how many perpetrators there had been, who had been the (main) perpetrator (including his/her sex, age, and ethnicity), where the incident had happened, and whether the respondent or the perpetrator had been under the influence of alcohol or drugs at the time. Relating to incidents involving violence, the respondents were asked what kind of violence they had experienced, what kind of injuries they had sustained, whether they had visited hospital or a doctor because of the injuries, and whether the perpetrators had made discriminatory remarks during the incident.

Sibling and peer victimisation was examined by studying the respondents' experiences of assaults, physical bullying, and verbal abuse by siblings and peers. Questions were largely the same as the ones asked earlier when experiences of crime were being charted. Regarding witnessing violence against family members, the respondents were asked whether they had seen or heard their mother, father or sibling being verbally or physically abused (e.g. hit with a fist or an item, attacked with a knife) or threatened with violence at home, and who the perpetrator had been, how old the respondent had been when the (first) incident had occurred, and whether the victim had sustained visible injuries or injuries that required professional treatment. Another question investigated whether a family member had been verbally or physically abused, threatened with violence etc. in public. Parents' means of approaching a conflict situation with the respondent were charted (e.g. sulking, insulting, threatening with violence, spanking on the bottom, kicking).

Relating to sexual activity with adults (or people at least five years older), the respondents were asked, among other things, whether they had experienced sexual advances from or been in sexual contact with adults, what had happened (e.g. sexual propositions, fondling, exposure of genitals), how old they had been, whether the respondent had known the adult, which of them had initiated the activity, whether coercion, violence, gifts or alcohol were involved, whether the respondent viewed the situation as sexual abuse, and whether the respondent had told anyone about the incident and if not, why.

Cyberbullying and online harassment experienced by the respondents was investigated with questions charting whether they had experienced various forms of cyberbullying or harassment in the previous 12 months (e.g. bullying, threats or sexual harassment by mobile phone, cyber defamation, unauthorised use of photos or videos online, requests for sexual material or sexual propositions online). The respondents were asked whether they had told anyone about such incidents and what the person who had been told about them had done. Finally, the respondents were asked whether they had ever met an online acquaintance, whether any online acquaintance they had met had persuaded or forced them into sex, where on the Internet the respondents had met this person, how old the respondents had been when the incident had happened, and whether it had been photographed or recorded.

Pupils on ninth grade were asked additional questions about dating and sexual experiences with their peers (e.g. first kiss, dating/relationship status, experiences of sexual interaction with and without physical touch, and sexual activity involving coitus). The questions were largely similar to the ones asked when sexual activity with adults was charted.

Background variables included, among others, the respondent's gender, age, household composition, and country of birth as well as parents' ages, occupations, employment statuses, countries of birth, and educations. Language spoken at home and financial situation of the family were also inquired about.


adults; assault; child abuse; child neglect; child sexual abuse; children; corporal punishment; crime victims; crimes against persons; crimes against property; cyberbullying; domestic violence; internet; school bullying; sexual behaviour; sexual harassment; youth

Topic Classification


Child Victim Surveys


Finnish Social Science Data Archive


The dataset is (B) available for research, teaching and study.

Data Collector

  • Police University College

Data Producers

  • Ministry of Justice
  • Ministry of Education and Culture
  • Ministry of the Interior
  • Ministry of Social Affairs and Health

Time Period Covered


Collection Dates

2013-08-12 – 2013-09-06



Geographical Coverage


Analysis/Observation Unit Type



Pupils on sixth grade (12-13 years old) and ninth grade (15-16 years old) in Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking schools in Finland in 2013

Time Method

Longitudinal: Trend/Repeated cross-section

Sampling Procedure

Probability: Multistage

Stratified cluster sampling. The sample unit was school class. Statistics Finland drew up samples of sixth grade and ninth grade classes of both Swedish- and Finnish-speaking schools separately. The samples were based on the information of sixth and ninth grade classes of the year before (2012). The four samples drawn were stratified according to province, municipality type and school size. Schools were asked to provide responses from 1-3 classes, depending on school size. Data collection was intended to occur in the spring of 2013, but as a result of delays in obtaining consent the data were collected in August and September. The original sample included 686 schools, 987 classes and 21,825 pupils. Exact response rate could not be calculated, because the samples were based on the class information of the school year before data collection (autumn 2012 - spring 2013). Total number of respondents was 11,364. The number of questionnaires that were returned empty has been deducted from the total number of respondents.

Collection Mode

Self-administered questionnaire: Web-based (CAWI)

Research Instrument

Structured questionnaire

Data File Language

Downloaded data package may contain different language versions of the same files.

The data files of this dataset are available in the following languages: Finnish and English.

FSD translates quantitative data into English on request, free of charge. More information on ordering data translation.

Number of Cases and Variables

902 variables and 11364 cases.

Data Version


Completeness of Data and Restrictions

Variable q51_10b ("Do you have any of the following disabilities, illnesses or special needs: Other disability or long-term disease, which?") has been removed from the data for privacy reasons. Original open-ended variables, which have been recoded into new variables by the researchers, have been removed from the data. The new recoded variables have been marked as 'categorised open-ended' in the data.


There are two weight variables in the data, sample weight and analysis weight. The weights were calculated by using calibration, taking into account the old province division, municipality type and marginal distributions in terms of school size in sixth and ninth graders. Sample weight is an expanding weight when totals are being calculated. The sum of analysis weights equals the number of respondents and these weights can be used, for instance, when calculating ratios. Because the sample is a two-level cluster sample, calculating variances should be done at the school level. That is, school is the primary sample unit, although detailed data on schools have been removed from the delivered data for privacy reasons.

Citation Requirement

The data and its creators shall be cited in all publications and presentations for which the data have been used. The bibliographic citation may be in the form suggested by the archive or in the form required by the publication.

Bibliographical Citation

Ellonen, Noora (Police University College) & Fagerlund, Monica (Police University College) & Kääriäinen, Juha (Police University College) & Peltola, Marja (Finnish Youth Research Society) & Sariola, Heikki (Central Union for Child Welfare): Child Victim Survey 2013 [dataset]. Version 1.0 (2015-03-16). Finnish Social Science Data Archive [distributor]. http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi:fsd:T-FSD2943

Deposit Requirement

The user shall notify the archive of all publications where she or he has used the data.


The original data creators and the archive bear no responsibility for any results or interpretations arising from the reuse of the data.

Related Materials

Monica Fagerlund, Marja Peltola, Juha Kääriäinen, Noora Ellonen & Heikki Sariola (2014). Lasten ja nuorten väkivaltakokemukset 2013. Lapsiuhritutkimuksen tuloksia. Tampere: Poliisiammattikorkeakoulu. Poliisiammattikorkeakoulun raportteja 110.

Related Publications Tooltip

Fagerlund, M. & Ellonen, N. (2016). Children's Experiences of Completing a Computer-Based Violence Survey: Finnish Child Victim Survey Revisited. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 25(5), 556-576

Fagerlund, Monica & Peltola, Marja & Kääriäinen, Juha & Ellonen, Noora & Sariola, Heikki (2014). Lasten ja nuorten väkivaltakokemukset 2013. Lapsiuhritutkimuksen tuloksia. Tampere: Poliisiammattikorkeakoulu. Poliisiammattikorkeakoulun raportteja 110.

Hautanen, Pinja & Kekkonen, Karoliina (2017) Resilienssiin yhteydessä olevat suojaavat tekijät vanhempien taholta väkivaltaa kokeneilla lapsilla ja nuorilla. Pro gradu -tutkielma, Psykologian oppiaine, Itä-Suomen Yliopisto.

Hietamäki, Johanna & Husso, Marita & Arponen, Tiia (2020) Tyttöjen ja poikien väliset erot seksuaalisesta hyväksikäytöstä kertomisessa. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka 85 (5-6), 542-553. http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi-fe2020112593236

Hietamäki, Johanna & Huttunen, Marjukka & Husso, Marita (2021) Gender Differences in Witnessing and the Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence from the Perspective of Children in Finland. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4724. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094724

Kuusela, Krista (2020) Nuorten kasautuneet uhrikokemukset - Yhdeksäsluokkalaisten uhrikokemusten kasautumisen yhteydet yksilöön, perheeseen ja vapaa-aikaan liittyviin tekijöihin. Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän yliopisto, Humanistis-yhteiskuntatieteellinen tiedekunta. Sosiaalityön pro gradu -tutkielma.

Kuusela, Krista & Yli-Kivistö, Heidi (2017). Sisarussuhteissa koetun väkivallan yhteys yksinäisyyden kokemuksiin - 6.- ja 9.-luokkalaisten vastauksia vuoden 2013 Lapsiuhritutkimuksesta. Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän yliopisto, humanistis-yhteiskuntatieteellinen tiedekunta. Sosiaalityön kandidaatintutkielma.

Lammi, Tuulia (2018). Yksi- ja monipaikkaisen asumisen yhteys lasten ja nuorten hyvinvointiin. Tampere: Tampereen yliopisto, yhteiskuntatieteiden tiedekunta. Sosiaalityön pro gradu -tutkielma.

Pihlapuro, Aki (2020). Lasten seksuaalisen hyväksikäytön tunnistaminen koneoppimisen avulla. Helsinki: Helsingin yliopisto. Lääketieteellinen tiedekunta. Psykologian ja logopedian osasto. Pro gradu -tutkielma. http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:hulib-202012165338

Piia Seppälä, Riitta Vornanen and Timo Toikko (2020) Are Children With a Number of Disabilities and Long-Term Illnesses at Increased Risk of Mental Violence, Disciplinary Violence and Serious Violence? Journal of Interpersonal Violence 1-26, Sage Publications.

Rind, B. (2022). Reactions to Minor-Older and Minor-Peer Sex as a Function of Personal and Situational Variables in a Finnish Nationally Representative Student Sample. Archives of Sexual Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-021-02224-0.

Salonen, Jonna-Marie (2018). Nuoret seksuaalisen ehdottelun ja hyväksikäytön uhreina internetissä - Yhteydet yksilöllisiin tekijöihin, aiempiin uhrikokemuksiin sekä psykososiaaliseen hyvinvointiin. Itä-Suomen yliopisto. Psykologian pro gradu -tutkielma.

Sanz, Anne (2017). Logistinen regressioanalyysi kuritusväkivallan ja muun perheväkivallan yhteyksistä. Helsinki: Helsingin yliopisto, valtiotieteellinen tiedekunta. Tilastotieteen kandidaatintutkielma.

Seppälä, Mire (2017). Korvapuusteista kasvatuskeskusteluihin. Vanhempien kuritusväkivalta-asenteiden ja lasten kuritusväkivaltakokemusten muutos 1981-2014. Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän avoin yliopisto. Sosiaalityön kandidaatintutkielma.

Seppälä, Piia (2019) Lasten sairauksien yhteys emotionaaliseen ja fyysiseen kaltoinkohteluun. Sosiaalityön Pro gradu -tutkielma, Itä-Suomen yliopisto. . http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi:uef-20200190

Seppälä, Piia, Vornanen, Rriitta & Toikko, Timo (2021) Multimorbitity and polyvictimization in children - An analysis on the association of children's disabilties and long-term illnesses with mental violence and physical violence. Child Abuse & Neglect 122. doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105350

Uusitalo, Iidaliina (2016). Harrastuksen ohjaajan lapseen tai nuoreen kohdistama sanallinen, fyysinen ja seksuaalinen väkivalta. Oulu: Oulun yliopisto, luonnontieteellinen tiedekunta. (Tilastotiede) Kandidaatintutkielma.

Yli-Kivistö, Heidi (2020). Sisarusväkivalta kuudes- ja yhdeksäsluokkalaisten nuorten keskuudessa: perhekontekstin yhteys väkivallan kokemuksiin. Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän yliopisto, humanisti-yhteiskuntatieteellinen tiedekunta. Sosiaalityön pro gradu -tutkielma.

Study description in machine readable DDI 2.0 format

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