FSD3285 Social Distinctions in Modern Russia 1990

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Authors

  • Nikula, Jouko (University of Helsinki. Aleksanteri Institute)

Keywords

educational background, family environment, family life, interpersonal relations, labour and employment, occupational life, political action, political attitudes, socio-economic status, standard of living, workers participation

Abstract

This study is part of a survey series that charts various issues characterising social differentiation in contemporary Russian society. The surveys in the series have been conducted in 1990, 1998, 2006 and 2015, facilitating research on temporal change. Social differentiation in this study was mainly considered in terms of occupation, social mobility, property and income, but attitudes, politics and religion were also examined. The study aimed to survey the respondents' conditions in life together with their values in order to examine the interaction between the two.

Most questions in the survey concerned the respondents' working life and the atmosphere of their workplace. Questions focused on, for example, whether the respondents worked for the public or private sector, what kind of company they worked for, what kind of independency and responsibilities the respondents had in their work, whether the respondents were in a decision-making position at work, and what kind of relationship they had with their co-workers. Additionally, the respondents were asked whether they thought their education had provided them with the qualifications needed in their work, whether they attended further training at present, and whether they wanted to continue their studies in the near future and for what reason.

The survey also included questions on the respondents' family, childhood, religiosity, friends, and owned property. The socio-economic status of the respondents' parents, spouse/partner and friends was surveyed, and the respondents were asked whether they owned or would like to own various property and items, such as their own house or car, a washing machine, colour television, and computer. Finally, the respondents' views on the socio-economic status of different occupations and their opinions on state and private ownership as well as some social phenomena were surveyed. The respondents were asked, for example, how much they thought people in different occupations (e.g. teachers, engineers, managers, surgeons) earned on average per month and how much they thought people in these occupations should earn. The examined social phenomena included, for example, what the respondents thought were the reasons for the misery and poverty of people.

Background variables included the sector in which the respondent worked in, the respondent's employment history, status in employment, education, age, marital status, number of children, ages of children, gender and whether they owned various household durable goods.

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