FSD3435 PROMEQ: Health and Well-being of People Aged 65 and Over 2017-2018
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- Rissanen, Sari (University of Eastern Finland. Faculty of Social Sciences and Business Studies)
- Kannasoja, Sirpa (University of Jyväskylä)
- Ristolainen, Hanna (University of Eastern Finland)
- Tiilikainen, Elisa (University of Jyväskylä)
- Kivitalo, Mari (University of Eastern Finland)
- Närhi, Kati (University of Jyväskylä)
- Mäki-Opas, Tomi (University of Eastern Finland. Department of Social Sciences)
- Vaarama, Marja (University of Eastern Finland)
- Forma, Leena (Tampere University)
- Partanen, Jussi
- Klavus, Jan (Tampere University)
- Rissanen, Pekka (Tampere University)
elderly, health services, health status, lifestyle and health, loneliness, old age, participation, public services, quality of life, social inequality, social networks, social services, trust
The survey charted the social participation, mental and physical well-being, use of social and health services, and satisfaction with life of Finnish people aged over 65. The data were collected as part of the Inclusive Promotion of Health and Wellbeing (PROMEQ 2016-2019) research project, which studied population groups that need special support. The aim of the PROMEQ project was to develop and demonstrate novel models of promotion of health and wellbeing. Survey data from the other target groups of the project as well as combined data from all surveys are also available at FSD (FSD3432-FSD3436).
The respondents were assigned into test and control groups. Three surveys were conducted in total: a baseline survey (Questionnaire A) was conducted at the beginning of the research and two follow-up surveys were collected three (Questionnaire B) and six months (Questionnaire C) after the baseline survey. All three surveys are included in this dataset. The test group received social support, guidance, and counselling services, and participated in different inclusive activities. The control group participants were offered conventional services if they sought help. The services offered to the test group included, for instance, inclusive case management aimed at the elderly living at home and at risk of social exclusion because of loneliness or feelings of unsafety. The case management was organised in the form of five group meetings during a six-month period. 6-8 people aged 65 and over, the case manager for the region, and one of the researchers participated in each meeting.
The surveys included many scales and questions used in other studies. Questions were selected, for instance, from the Finnish Youth Surveys, as well as the Regional Health and Well-being Study (ATH) and Welfare and Services in Finland (HYPA) surveys conducted by the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL). Most questions included in the baseline survey were repeated in the follow-up surveys.
First, the surveys charted the respondents' living conditions, income, loans and need for financial aid or food assistance. The respondents' health, well-being and quality of life was examined with questions on, for example, how satisfied the respondents were with their health, how much they had enjoyed life in the past two weeks, how safe and secure they felt in their everyday life, and whether they had enough energy and drive for their daily life. Satisfaction with different spheres of life was also surveyed with questions regarding, for example, quality of sleep, capacity to work, relationships, and support received from friends.
Social relationships and trust were examined next. The respondents were asked whether they often felt lonely and whether they had ever been discriminated based on factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, or financial situation. Questions also focused on the respondents' sociability and feelings of belonging (e.g. whether they felt they were a part of a friend group, had much in common with people around them, and could find company when they wanted to, or whether they felt left out and isolated). The respondents' trust in other people and various institutions, such as public health care, the judicial system, and municipal decision-making, was examined. The respondents' opinions on their own opportunities in life were also surveyed (e.g. whether they thought they had good or bad opportunities to strive for happiness in their life and to act according to their conscience). Barriers to social participation were examined, and the respondents were asked whether there were obstacles that prevented them or made it difficult for them to meet other people outside their home (e.g. memory problems, difficulties moving outside, fear of social situations, or poor self-esteem).
Next, big life changes were surveyed. The respondents were asked whether they had experienced any negative or unpleasant changes (e.g. serious illness, losing their partner, decrease in income) or any positive or interesting changes (e.g. finding a new partner or friend, significant improvement in health) in the past year. Participation and interest in events and activities arranged by various organisers, such as pensioners' organisations, parishes, or sports clubs, was also examined. The respondents' general happiness and satisfaction was investigated with statements concerning, for example, whether they knew how they wanted to live their life, had enough joy in their life, and felt useful.
Finally, the respondents' use of social and health services was surveyed. The respondents were asked whether they had visited a doctor or other health or social services professional or received support services (e.g. cooking, cleaning or transport services) in the past 12 months (3 or 6 months in the follow-up survey). Additionally, the respondents were asked whether they had been treated in various health care facilities or bought medication during the past year. Questions also focused on basic social assistance, the respondents' satisfaction with the availability of various social and public services, and the respondents' participation in group activities promoting health and well-being (e.g. weight management groups, AA, NA). The respondents' lifestyle was also examined with questions on their exercise, eating and drinking habits.
Background variables included, among others, the respondent's gender, year of birth, marital status, highest level of education, household composition, and economic activity and occupational status. Additionally, the background information included whether the respondent belonged to the test or control group.
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